Saturday, September 29, 2007

Through The Microscopic Looking Glass

If you've ever had to make research and at some phase everyone have had to, you will cognize that it is one of the driest things in the human race to do. It is as dry as sawdust. You just have got to set your caput down and work your manner through. You make lurch across some interesting facts, it is rather the point of the whole venture, but it is somehow never adequate to acquire you really excited about the process. Some research makes not affect trawling through aeons worth of library books or cyberspace pages, some research is a spot more practical. Scientific and medical research for example, reading is involved of course, but those involved also acquire to analyze specimens under microscopes and do enlightened "aha, hmm" noises. In footing of waterlessness that type of research is practically sopping.

"Cancer research", funnily enough, is the survey of cancer. Cancer research scopes from the basic biological science of the disease to the personal effects of different types of treatment. Every facet of the disease is studied i.e. causes of cancer, how malignant neoplastic disease forms, methods of treatment and methods of bar etc etc. The primary end of malignant neoplastic disease research is to bring forth effectual treatment and bar for all types of cancer.

There are different countries of malignant neoplastic disease research all of which are interconnected and impact one another. Basic Research: Tries to reply some very full general inquiries such as as how make cells work? Why make cells grow? How make cells cognize when to divide? The chief purpose of basic research is to happen out what do malignant neoplastic disease cells different from normal cells. They look at molecules and the edifice blocks of molecules, protein and DNA. They seek to happen out what travels incorrect in cells when malignant neoplastic disease develops. As an example, in a survey in Scotland, men of science were studying proteins and they establish a protein called MYC that lends to 1 in 7 malignant neoplastic disease deaths. Our cells actually necessitate this protein, MYC, so that they can divide, but when we have got malignant neoplastic disease the cells are faulty and travel into overdrive, the MYC turns on a specific proteins that cause rapid cell growing and division of cells. If men of science could happen which of the proteins are activated they might be able to happen ways to decelerate down their division or growth. Basic research is the foundation on which all other research in built.

Translational research: takes finds from the laboratory (i.e. basic research) and turns them into possible new treatments or diagnostic diagnostic tests for patients. For illustration there is a survey in Cambridge University on how cells divide, where they establish a grouping of proteins called MCM proteins, which are indispensable to the division process. One protein, MCM5, is being used to develop a diagnostic diagnostic test for some cancers. MCM is establish in high degree in all dividing cells. Cancer happens when cells travel incorrect and start multiplying out of control. MCM5 is establish in many these out of control cells and not in normal cells. MCM5 is establish in cervical, bladder, prostate gland and intestine malignant neoplastic disease cells. The presence of MCM5 in a Pap Smear betters the truth in diagnosing for cervical cancer. Translational research Bridges the spread between research worker and patients. It also affects investigating why a treatment may suddenly halt working after it have been working for a piece or why a treatment bring forths unwanted side effects. One of the most of import undertakings of interlingual rendition research workers is to better current treatments.

Clinical research: The end of clinical research is to develop more than effectual treatments. The men of science seek new combinations and doses of existing treatments to see if they can come up up with something that plant better than the criterion treatments in use. They also do usage of translational research to develop new treatments. These men of science work in infirmaries and not in laboratories like the two types above, this is so that they can have got entree to the patients. But not in a huffy men of science way, they're allowed entree to the patients in order to carry on clinical trials, which are regulated and ruled strictly. Cancer patients, usually in advanced phases of cancer, who have got got tried standard treatments and who have not benefited from them, military volunteer to take portion in these clinical trials. There are 4 forms to each trial. Phase 1 – to happen out if a new drug or treatment is safe in people and how much of it should be given. This is the first clip that the drug is tested on people. Phase 2 – to see if the drug is effective. Phase 3 – directly compares the new treatment with the criterion treatment to see if the new treatment is better. Phase 4 – looks at the long-term safety and benefits of the treatment/drug.

Behavioural and population research: This type of research is undertaken in order to place factors that influence our hazard of getting cancer. They take a expression at things like life style choices, patterns, tendencies and relative incidences of different types of malignant neoplastic diseases so that they can develop schemes for bar and good health.

Psychosocial research: This is research on the emotional and societal impact that malignant neoplastic disease have on patients, households and carers. It looks at the importance of support and assist and seeks to mensurate the quality of life, which is how the physical and psychological wellness impacts enjoyment of life. Some inquiries that they see and seek to reply are: how make people respond to the news that they have got cancer? How make they get by with the treatment? Are people with malignant neoplastic disease more likely to have got mental wellness problems? How make malignant neoplastic disease and its treatment affect day-to-day life? Why make some patients make up one's mind not to complete treatment? How make households respond to having a relative with cancer?

Some research is as previously stated, so dry and deadening you could utilize it to begin fires and have got no problem even in a hurricane. And some research would catch fire in the Sahara, that's the best sort and as an added fillip it's usually the most of import kind. Research for this was sort of merriment if you desire to happen out more than try: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerandresearch/aboutcancerresearch Those cats doing basic malignant neoplastic disease research might have got the word basic in the statute title but there is nil basic in what they do. In improver to being of import and life economy and foundation edifice for all other malignant neoplastic disease research, they acquire microscopes and crisp instruments and other merriment medical tools. Some people acquire all the fun.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Cancer survivor's naked campaign

A Northumberland woman, who have twice survived breast cancer, is stripping off to raise consciousness of the disease.


Emma Duncan, 33, from Cramlington, will look in postings in Cancer Research United Kingdom stores wearing nil but organic structure paint and retention a India rubber duck.


She is promoting the charity's All Join Together political campaign after also losing her grandma and female parent to cancer.


The political campaign takes to raise finances for research into the disease as well as increasing awareness.


Emma, who was 29 when she was first diagnosed with breast malignant neoplastic disease in 2003, said she establish posing for the postings "very liberating".


She was treated with a lumpectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


'Very positive'


After turning 31, she was diagnosed with a tumor inch her other breast followers a routine check-up in June 2005. She went on to have got a dual mastectomy and reconstructive surgery.


She said: "I've had issues with the manner I look following my treatment for breast malignant neoplastic disease and I believe that many breast malignant neoplastic disease subsisters experience the same way.


"I've establish taking portion in the photoshoot for the political campaign very liberating.


"I believe it's daring, but very positive to demo breast malignant neoplastic disease subsisters bare in Cancer Research United Kingdom store windows. I'm nude but it's all done for the best possible cause."


Each twelvemonth 44,000 women are diagnosed with breast malignant neoplastic disease in the UK.


In the posters, the Npower worker is painted achromatic and stencilled with reddish and achromatic love hearts, which bear the words 'true' and 'false' - a form by British People interior designer Smasher Guinness.


Guinness and chap interior designer Tracey Boyd have got also created limited edition India rubber ducks for sale.

Monday, September 17, 2007

Mesothelioma Clinical Trials

What is a clinical trial?

Medical research is rapidly expanding all over the world. For the assorted statuses and diseases, tons of new medical specialties and treatments are being invented everyday. These medical specialties and treatments have got to be studied in depth, analyzed and tested. For this purpose, clinical trials are conducted. Clinical trials are performed to analyze the effectivity of new drugs and treatment.

What is mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a serious life-threatening condition in which the mesothelium cells act abnormally. Most of the variety meat of the organic structure like lungs, abdomen, bosom and some other parts have got a lining called as mesothelium lining. Mesothelioma is caused owed to exposure to asbestos fibres or asbestos dust. When a individual inhales the asbestos dust or fibres through the olfactory organ or mouth, they come in the organic structure and traveling throughout the body. After this, they settle down in some organic structure organ and traveling through it, finally coming in contact with the mesothelium lining. As soon as they touch the mesothelium lining, the mesothelium cells begin behaving in an bizarre manner. They begin dividing rapidly and start to outlive the other cells. This Pbs to the formation of tumours in that organ, leading to mesothelioma. The tumours may also distribute to other parts of the body.

What are mesothelioma clinical trials?

Mesothelioma is very hard to diagnose, as the diagnosing process is quite complex. Also, the symptoms of mesothelioma, like thorax pain, fever, cough, diarrhoea and so on are similar to many other benign diseases. Thus, it is often confused with such as diseases. Finally, by the clip it is correctly establish out, the patient is in the last phases of cancer, with lone few hebdomads or years left to live.

A batch of research and analysis is necessary in this disease. A batch more should be done to do the lives of these patients more relaxed and peaceful. To accomplish this, tons of research workers are trying to come up up with new methods of treatment to assist mesothelioma patients. Studies about the effectivity of these treatments are absolutely necessary and for this reason, mesothelioma clinical trials are conducted.

What is done in a clinical trial?

A clinical trial is performed to analyze the effectivity of the new types of treatments invented for mesothelioma. The clinical trial would assist to happen out the right amount of dosage, how best to administrate the treatment and whether there are any side personal effects in administering the new medical specialty or the new method of treatment. Who are the people in the clinical trials?

Many people enlist themselves in mesothelioma clinical trials. These are the people who may be apprehensive to seek out the new medical specialties or treatments or these may be people who desire to assist other people like themselves, who endure from this awful condition. Assorted patients of different backgrounds with different phases and types of mesothelioma are required for the clinical trials. Some of them may profit from the trial while for some the trial may turn out hazardous and adverse.

What should a military volunteer cognize before participating in a clinical trial?

Every individual who desires to take part in a clinical trial should first understand that a trial is only an experimental study. It may be good to some and harmful to some. Some military volunteers may give a freehand to the medical research workers to offer any type of treatment. Some military volunteers may present limitations and demand only certain types of treatments. This is the pick of the
Volunteer and every individual should make up one's mind this before opting for the clinical trial. Also, the people interested in engagement should talk to their physician beforehand and happen out all the necessary information about the clinical trial. Engagement in a clinical trial should not be whimsical. It should be an informed decision.

The military volunteer should also check up on whether he or she is qualified for the peculiar clinical trial. A trial requiring a individual in the 4th phase of malignant neoplastic disease cannot usage a patient who is in the first phase of cancer. A trial involving pleural mesothelioma cannot usage a individual agony from peritoneal mesothelioma. It is better to inform you here that pleural mesothelioma impacts the lungs, peritoneal mesothelioma impacts the venter and pericardial mesothelioma impacts the heart.

Thursday, September 13, 2007

Best Supporting Role

In the human race of acting playing a good encouraging function can win you celebrity and luck and a host of small statues. You can have on no end of beautiful eventide gowns and donated diamonds (not struggle please) and outcry in your thank-you addresses to your Black Maria content. And if you're lucky people will suspiration and state that you looked lovely in the yellowish with your hair curled and pulled to the right and that your address had them reaching for the tissues. If you're unlucky you'll do the worst dressed listing and whenever they advert the most unforgettable addresses you will always be there for all the incorrect reasons. In the existent human race i.e. the 1 that you and I inhabit, there are no awardings for being supportive and lovingness and loving towards your household and friends. Being supportive and loving and lovingness is, supposedly, its ain reward. Whatever, convey on the donated diamonds and 10 expansive eventide gowns that's what I say.

There is nil more than of import or more hard than supporting those who have got a chronic unwellness and malignant neoplastic disease is one of the most chronic unwellnesses you can get. If you are going to take on a supportive function for a malignant neoplastic disease sick person do certain that you are prepared to lodge around for the long draw and that you have got the interior strength and militia to draw yourself and the patient through some very hard times. Supporting a malignant neoplastic disease patient is not something that you pick up and driblet as and when you experience like it.

When a malignant neoplastic disease patient is first diagnosed with malignant neoplastic disease it is usually the first clip that that individual is confronted with his or her mortality. It is a very awful prospect to see and it is quite natural for their heads to be a shade preoccupied with decease for a piece after that. It's the supporter's occupation to seek and acquire them to concentrate on life again, which is so easy is theory and so much less so in pattern when your ain head maintains wandering to the dark side. The patient will travel through respective phases (they're the 7 phases of mourning but we'll only advert a few here) like guilt: Why me? Americium Iodine being punished for something I did? My household is going to endure because of me. Anger: Why now, just when things were starting to look up? My last kid have just left the house. My first kid have just been born. Fear: death, pain, of being a fiscal load etc etc. Isolation: No 1 understands what I am going through? They pay lip service but no 1 really cares. Denial: They made a error with the tests. I experience too good to be that sick. It is of import to recognise that the protagonist will travel through similar phases and have got reactions comparable to those of the malignant neoplastic disease patient.

An of import undertaking for the protagonist to transport out is to convert the patient to fight. This usually implies more than than the patient believes of at first. It affects a complete alteration of life style and will necessitate them to acquire out of and maybe entirely give up their comfortableness zones. It is of import that they take action and stay active in their ain recovery process. That is why it is also of import that you make not make everything for them no substance how bad you experience for them. It is of import that they keep control over their lives. Promote them to take attention of themselves. Remark on any advancement that they make. Spend clip on activities that are not related to cancer. Spend clip with them even as they begin to retrieve and acquire well. Dainty them as if you anticipate them to live. It is vitally of import that you give them hope. Giving hope is almost as good as giving the gift of life. Without hope they might as well be dead anyway.

One of the best arms that you can have got in the warfare against malignant neoplastic disease is cognition so arm yourself well. There are plenty of websites on the nett for you to download and do usage of and there are no end of books available at libraries and bookshops. Try and assist the patient to get cognition without dishing it out. It assists if the patient shows an involvement in getting the cognition him or herself.

Something else that you are going to have got to watch out for in all malignant neoplastic disease patients is depression. It will happen to a greater or lesser grade in anyone battling a chronic disease and facing his or her ain mortality. Try to minimise it by suggesting that you seek pleasant events or new recreational activities. Physical activities are of import to raise tempers and maintain the organic structure as healthy as possible. Brand them experience of import by including them in decision-making. Plan for the hereafter even if they are short-term future plans. Rich Person merriment and larn to play.

Here are a few malignant neoplastic disease truisms for you to remember: 1) Cancer is curable
2) There is no type of malignant neoplastic disease for which there are no treatments 3) There is no type of malignant neoplastic disease for which person have not been cured!

And on that note, there is hope for us all.

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Namibia: Keep Abreast of Progress in Cancer Treatment - AllAfrica.com

Tanja BauseWindhoek

CHERYL Ferreira (46) was diagnosed with advanced breast malignant neoplastic disease in 2001 and after very aggressive chemotherapy and the remotion of one breast she now focuses all her energy on the Range For Recovery arrangement and helping other women going through the same ordeal.

The international arrangement have been active in Republic Of Namibia for roughly 19 years, but it is very low key and Cheryl trusts to change this.

Reach For Recovery visits breast-cancer patients in hospitals.

With the permission of the patients, the infirmaries and docs telephone the arrangement on the patients' behalf.

Ferreira experiences that docs necessitate to acquire more than involved and inform their new patients about the arrangement and the fact that there is support available.

She states the arrangement rans into with a batch of rejection from patients who decline to speak about their malignant neoplastic disease and mastectomies.

"A batch of women make not desire to speak to us or see us, although we are all breast-cancer subsisters and cognize first manus what they are going through. We are here for them," states Cheryl.

During the visits, patients are encouraged and counselled.

The women also have goodie bags containing information pamphlets, a impermanent prosthetic device and a comfortableness pillow.

Reach For Recovery would wish to add more than points to the bag, since many of the women are State patients with low incomes.

Reach For Recovery's aims are to cut down the breast-cancer mortality rate, to increase public consciousness of the unwellness and advance a healthy lifestyle, to promote the pattern of self-examination of the breasts, to set up military volunteer webs throughout Republic Of Namibia and to develop new military volunteers in all parts of the country.

They also inform patients who had a mastectomy on the handiness of prostheses and support clothing, and on cheaper ways to do their ain prostheses.

When Cheryl was diagnosed, she received a batch of support from her family, friends and especially her husband, who still back ups her and the work she do with Range For Recovery.

She states she was and still is very positive, adding that sitting in a corner feeling bad for oneself functions no purpose.

"You can take a normal life and lend normally to life - it is just a substance of acceptance, especially by the husband, which makes it much easier for the adult female to transport on normally," she says.

Meet then enemy

Breast malignant neoplastic disease may be one of the oldest known word forms of malignant neoplastic disease tumors in humans.

The oldest verbal description of malignant neoplastic disease (although the term malignant neoplastic disease was not used) was discovered in Arab Republic Of Egypt and days of the month back to approximately 1600 BC.

The Edwin Ian Smith Papyrus depicts eight lawsuits of tumors or ulcerations of the breast that were treated by cauterisation, with a tool called "the fire drill."

The authorship states about the disease: "There is no treatment."

For centuries, docs described similar lawsuits in their practices, with the same sad conclusion.

It wasn't until doctors achieved greater apprehension of the circulatory system in the 17th century that they could set up a nexus between breast malignant neoplastic disease and the lymph nodes in the armpit.

The Gallic operating operating surgeon Jean Joe Louis Petit (1674-1750) and later the Scots surgeon Benzoin Bell (1749-1806) were the first to take the lymph nodes, breast tissue, and implicit in thorax muscle.

Their successful work was carried on by William Jimmy Stewart Halsted, who started performing mastectomies in 1882.

He became known for his Halsted extremist mastectomy, a surgical process that remained popular up to the 1970s.

Early breast malignant neoplastic disease can in some lawsuits present as breast hurting or a painful lump.

Relevant Links

If a adult female have a hunk under the arm or above the clavicle that makes not travel away, she necessitates to confer with a doctor.

When breast malignant neoplastic disease associates with tegument inflammation, this is known as inflammatory breast cancer.

In inflammatory breast cancer, the breast tumor itself is causing an inflammatory reaction of the skin, and this tin cause pain, swelling, warmth, and inflammation throughout the breast.

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Saturday, September 8, 2007

Blood test to spot cancer early

LONDON:
British men of science claim to have got developed a blood diagnostic test that offerings the
possibility of spotting malignant neoplastic disease long before the symptoms
appear. The diagnostic test successfully
detected early marks of breast malignant neoplastic disease in some women and the men of science trust the
vital hints will assist them to revolutionise malignant neoplastic disease bar by offering
cheaper and less invasive showing techniques in the adjacent 10 years. Cancer is a general term for
about 100 diseases characterised by uncontrolled, abnormal growing of cells
resulting in a mass or tumor that tin occupy and destruct healthy tissues. The Southampton University
research squad studied blood samples collected from 11,000 women over the last 30
years, some of whom later developed cancer. The research workers looked for
biomarkers รข€" proteins produced by malignant neoplastic disease cells. They have got seen significant
biomarkers of breast malignant neoplastic disease in the samples, reported the the Daily
Mail. "The quality of the
samples have been the cardinal but it is early days. Some of the ladies in the samples
were healthy at the clip but then went on to develop cancer. We are going back
through these clip capsules to look for things common in their blood that we can
identify as a malignant neoplastic disease fingerprint," Alice Paul Townsend, who is leading the study,
said.

Thursday, September 6, 2007

Cervical Cancer - The HPV Myth

This probe began when through my explores for my book I could show that all malignant neoplastic diseases can readily be linked to chemical and radiation causes, but there is one that was an exception. It was the fathead in the nest and this was cervical cancer. This malignant neoplastic disease fluctuation is now firmly established and universally attributed to having been caused by a virus as many of the articles in this Ezine more than testify. However, the grounds turns out otherwise and I shall turn out beyond any uncertainty that what I have got said is true but before legal proceeding with the grounds to back up this dissident statement, allow us take a expression at some background information about the disease. Clues to the cause of the disease can be establish within the information that now follows.

Worldwide, cervical malignant neoplastic disease is the 3rd most common type of malignant neoplastic disease in women. According to the NCCC (National Cervical Cancer Coalition) about 14,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with the disease each twelvemonth and more than than 3,900 women decease in each twelvemonth from this disease. However, the figure of women getting the disease in the western human race is very few when compared to the remainder of the world. Women in developing states business relationship for about 85% of both the annual lawsuits of cervical malignant neoplastic disease (estimated at 493,000 lawsuits worldwide) and the annual deceases from cervical malignant neoplastic disease (estimated at 273,500 deceases worldwide). In fact, whereas breast malignant neoplastic disease is the prima malignant neoplastic disease for women in the west, in the bulk of developing countries, cervical malignant neoplastic disease stays the number-one cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Keep these statistics in head because what they state us is very of import as far as determining the cause of cervical malignant neoplastic disease is concerned.

Initially I was taken aback by the disclosure that a virus caused cervical malignant neoplastic disease but then I began to inquire what it was that led the medical community to almost unanimously follow this thought when all other malignant neoplastic diseases clearly showed that chemicals (or radiation) was responsible. As I looked into this more than deeply, I came across a most confusing riddle. You see, what put docs along a way in hunt of a viral cause of the disease was triggered by an indeterminate study in a regional medical diary in Venice. It was made by an Italian operating surgeon and an recreational epidemiolist named Rigoni-Stern inch 1842. He had analysed 150,000 decease certifications from the Paolo Veronese territory for the old age 1760-1839 and establish that out of 74,184 women who died, 1288 of them were nuns. The cause of decease of the nuns varied but many had died of breast cancer, five modern times more common than other women. Incidently, he correctly attributed one of the grounds for the addition in breast malignant neoplastic disease in nuns compared to other women was owed to the girdles they wore). He recorded four deceases from uterine malignant neoplastic disease (cervical malignant neoplastic disease was not eminent from other malignant neoplastic diseases of the uterus), while he had expected at least six based on 361 lawsuits in the remaining 72,896 women.

From this somewhat indeterminate analysis, others saw this information as grounds that there was small or no cervical malignant neoplastic disease among Catholic nuns compared with the remainder of the Italian female population. Subsequent docs endeavoured to spread out on this indeterminate report, adding assorted invented details, including the thought that cervical malignant neoplastic disease in cocottes was prevalent. So arose the myth that as nuns were supposed to be celibate and yet cervical malignant neoplastic disease was rare among them, and that the disease was said to be quite common among cocottes this could only intend one thing. Cervical malignant neoplastic disease was caused by something that was sexually transmitted and it was not long before this guess became accepted as fact. Professor Skranbanek set things in position when he said that, "A mention to an indeterminate Italian communicating have got go a Delaware riguer in the gap paragraphs of articles on the aetiology of cervical cancer, but how many writers have read the orignal? Skranbanek, proved as did Dr Griffiths of Luton Hospital, that the footing upon which the theory that a sexually transmitted virus was a reddish herring, that have got led to docs following a false trail ever since.

For a hundred old age or more than the hunt for the elusive virus was searched for, with Smegma and Herpes at one clip thought to have been the cause, but eventually proven to be unfounded. Then came along Professor Harald zur Beluga and his squad who establish that a figure of HPV virus strains could be establish in women who had cervical cancer. The elusive virus had been establish and ever since then, this have go the constituted scientific hypothesis. But is wrong!

If HPV makes not make cervical malignant neoplastic disease as I have got said, even though most if not all of the medical community would differ with me, then what do I state is the cause of the disease? To reply this inquiry we necessitate first to take a expression at the challenging statistic that I mentioned earlier in this treatise, because it gives us a critical clue. "Women in developing states business relationship for about 85% of both the annual lawsuits of cervical cancer".

Did you cognize that the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States listings cervical malignant neoplastic disease as a "rare disease"? This agency that Cervical Cancer, or a subtype of the disease, impacts less than 200,000 people in the United States, a state that have a population of over 300 million people. According to the estimated new lawsuits and deceases from cervical (uterine cervix) malignant neoplastic disease in the United States in 2007 by the National Cancer Institute are 11,150 new lawsuits with deceases about 3,650. This compares to 470,000 new lawsuits and 230,000 deceases every twelvemonth to cervical malignant neoplastic disease human race wide, most of which happen in developing countries. The good news is that cervical malignant neoplastic disease incidents are on the diminution in the Occident and it is believed that the introduction of the Pap diagnostic test is responsible. This may be partially true, but how makes one explicate that cervical malignant neoplastic disease was already in diminution before the Pap diagnostic test was introduced?

The World Health Arrangement states that "More than 80% of the load of this easily noticeable and preventable disease is borne by developing countries" To exemplify this the WHO have got published a map of the human race that shows the proposed planetary relative incidence of cervical malignant neoplastic disease for 2005 in assorted countries, and it is most informative. The ground I state this is because I have got seen an almost exact reduplicate of this map elsewhere, accept that it have nil to make with cervical cancer. It is a map that shows the national energy ingestion of wood combustibles in the world. The correlativity is singular and ego evident. sheathing THE STATISTICAL world map OF CERVICAL cancer distribution AND Type A map OF THE countries THAT use wood arsenic THEIR primary fuel AND YOU WILL discovery AN ALMOST perfective MATCH.... This is no coincidence.

Please take a expression at the full article at http://www.teklinepublishing.com/cervical.htm and allow the grounds talk for itself.

Thank you

Fred Harding

Author and Historian